研究方法部分：传播学研究 Research Methodology Chapter: Communication Research
One communication-related aspect of the engagement debate concerns the fundamental nature of engagement and whether it can be considered an attitude, a psychological or motivational state, or a personality trait. The nature of engagement is a significant issue for corporate communicators since they are well-placed to influence workplace attitudes and stimulate employee motivation. Kahn (1990) presents engagement as a three-component construct influenced by three psychological states. Robinson et al. (2004) define the concept as a positive attitude. Conversely, Saks (2006) argues that engagement is not an attitude but a psychological state, while others (Sparrow and Balain, 2010) believe that engagement is an attitude. Macey and Schneider (2008a) regard engagement as a complex network encompassing trait, state, and behavioural constructs. Kahn (2010) contrasts his conception of dynamic engagement with steady-state (trait) views of motivation. Kahn describes engagement as both delicate and fragile, and quite resilient. So, Kahn's view of engagement exhibits a mixture of attitudinal-type states together with more fixed steady-state predisposition traits. This complex state and trait view of engagement is useful for communicators since it highlights a need for employee communication to understand and serve internal stakeholders' core (trait) communication needs, as well as surface (state and attitude) communication needs. Moreover, internal communication represents one of the organisational conditions that facilitate engagement.
Pugh and Dietz (2008) consider leadership as a precursor of organisation engagement and organisational effectiveness as a consequence. The communication abilities of leadership teams are recognised as important in driving engagement (Wiley et al., 2010). Communication has been identified also as an underlying factor associated with employee engagement (Kahn, 1992). Likewise, MacLeod and Clarke (2009) highlight communication as a critical factor for enhancing performance through employee engagement. They argue that good quality internal communication enhances engagement as they emphasise that employees need clear communication from senior management to understand how their own roles fit with the organisation vision. Unsurprisingly, they cite poor communication as a barrier to engagement and a cause of disengagement. However, contributions from